||It has been determined the composer's use of Carl Sagan's text qualifies|
as "fair use" under USC, Title 17 for the following reasons:
- The amount of text quoted is unsubstantial-- 59 words total contained in two quotations-- and an extremely small excerpt from its gigantic source, the Cosmos documentary.
- The composer does not stand to gain anything commercial from this work, nor is his motivation for using them commercial. Arguably, his use of them is, in fact, educational.
- The content presented is already freely available in a variety of sources online.
- Sagan is given all due credit.
- In using these two quotations, the composer does not compete with Sagan's estate in any way, nor does he negatively affect the market for or value of the copyrighted work.
- Perhaps most importantly, the quotations are used to create something new, rather than a verbatim copy.