Symphony No.10 (Mahler, Gustav)
Sketches and Drafts
I. Adagio. Full score (Partitur), complete draft (Mus.Hs.41000/1)
*#307127 - 9.17MB, 36 pp. - (6) - V/C/V - 6390x⇩
II. Scherzo – Finale. Full score (Partitur), complete draft (Mus.Hs.41000/2)
*#307128 - 11.06MB, 42 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 1525x⇩
III. Purgatorio. Incomplete drafts in full and short score (Mus.Hs.41000/3)
*#307129 - 2.48MB, 10 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 1173x⇩
IV. [Scherzo]. Final version of short score draft, complete (Mus.Hs.41000/4)
*#307130 - 7.29MB, 28 pp. - (3) - V/C/V - 1084x⇩
V. Finale. Final version of short score draft, complete (Mus.Hs.41000/5)
*#307131 - 6.43MB, 24 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 1744x⇩
Movement II, ‘à la Scherzo’, short score draft and sketches. (Mus.Hs.41000/7)
*#307133 - 10.42MB, 43 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 644x⇩
Movement V, folios of superseded short score draft. (Mus.Hs.41000/9)
*#307135 - 2.72MB, 10 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 818x⇩
Composer's autograph manuscript, n.d..
Original images: approx. 150dpi color jpg files ca.2230 by 1740 pixels.
ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/1 to 5 are the last or latest versions of the five movements of the symphony as left behind at Mahler’s death.
Movements I and II were sketched in short score before proceeding to partitur, so the final short score drafts of each (BSB Mus.ms.22744 and ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/7, respectively) are also highly important sources where the partitur is unclear.
Movements IV and V were sketched in short score only.
ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/3 incorporates three revisions:
one (of two) folio of initial sketches; two (of three) folios of continuous short score draft; and a folio of full score.
The remainder of Mss from the ÖNB and BSB comprise drafts, revisions or inserts (‘einlage’) at earlier stages in Mahler’s revision process.
Movement I. Final version of short score draft (BSB Mus.ms.22744)
*#306984 - 15.50MB, 21 pp. - (2) - V/C/V - 2672x⇩
Movement I. Folio VI, earlier version of short score. (BSB Mus.ms.22745)
*#306985 - 3.14MB, 3 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 441x⇩
Movement I. Folio I, earlier version of short score. (BSB Mus.ms.22746)
*#306986 - 1.44MB, 2 pp. - (1) - V/C/V - 454x⇩
Movement III. Unnumbered folio from short score. (BSB Mus.ms.22747)
*#306987 - 1.73MB, 3 pp. - (0) - V/C/V - 429x⇩
Composer's autograph manuscript, n.d. .
Original images: approx. 120dpi color jpg files ca.1500 by 1150 pixels.
BSB Mus.ms.22744 is the final short score draft Mahler made for the first movement Adagio, before he proceeded to the orchestral draft (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/1): a bifolio with the heading ‘Adagio / SKIZZEN’ enclosing 10 folios numbered from 1–9 (two folios are numbered ‘8’; the second folio 8 is an earlier draft of the music found on the first folio 8 and folio 9). Missing from the scan are the (blank) verso of folio 9, and the last two sides (also blank) of the bifolio which encloses the remainder.
In addition to the 31 pages of the partitur and those in this draft, there are eighteen folios (ten of which are numbered with Roman numerals from I to VIII with second copies of V and VII, and another eight unnumbered), two of which are Mus.mss.22745 and 22746.
BSB Mus.ms.22747 is the second of two folios comprising the entire movement in its initial draft (see also ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/3 above).
BSB Mus.ms.22748 is either the first or final version of folio I in the short score of movement IV; there are twelve pages total in the short score, and thirteen pages of other drafts and sketches for this movement.
|Work Title||Symphony No.10|
|Alternative Title||X. Symphonie (unfinished)|
|Key||F♯ minor / F♯ major|
|Year/Date of Composition||1910|
|First Performance||1924-10-12 in Vienna (movements 1 and 3)
1960-12-19 in London (5 movements, with incomplete realisations of II, IV, and V by Deryck Cooke)
1964-08-13 in London, Royal Albert Hall, Proms (complete, in Cooke’s 1st performing edition)
|First Publication||1924 - Vienna: Paul Zsolnay Verlag (ed. Richard Specht)
1951 - New York: Associated (ed. Otto Jokl)
1967 - Munich: Internationale Gustav Mahler Gesellschaft (edited Erwin Ratz)
|Copyright Information||Most likely public domain in the USA, despite publication date.|
|Average Duration||75 minutes|
(The surviving orchestration does not specify a English horn, bass clarinet, bass drum, cymbals, and triangle, although Mahler regularly used these instruments in his other symphonies)
|External Links||Wikipedia article|
This work is unfinished by the composer
F♯ minor seems more accurate. Order of movements debatable and debated; the above is the order used by Deryck Cooke and some (but not all) others who have published/performed completions of the symphony, but no final order for all 5 movements was definitely specified by the composer in the sketches/packaging thereof, and different orderings have been argued for. - Schissel
Grove has F♯ minor/F♯ major for this symphony, so both (or neither) seems more accurate. There is not really that much of a debate about the order of movements – this is a ‘false controversy’ you have flagged. These are the actual movement headings on the final versions of the five movements:
First movement in partitur (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/1)
N.B. Not “Andante – Adagio”. The Andante only perseveres for the first 15 bars of the movement and is clearly only a ‘local tempo’ marking, since Mahler didn’t regard it as characterising the entire movement. The short score draft (BSB Mus.mss.22744) bears only the heading, “Adagio”, as also does the collection of earlier drafts and sketches (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/6)
Second movement in partitur (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/2)
2. Scherzo – Finale
Third movement in short score, and one folio of full score (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/3)
N.B. The manuscript bifolio of the cover/title page was half cut away, probably by Alma to censor a personal utterance by Mahler. At the upbeat to bar 126 of the short score Mahler marks ‘da capo’, indicating an implied repeat followed by 17 bars of coda; the implied repeat adds another 26 bars for a total of 170 bars.
Fourth movement in short score (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/4)
II Finale 4 3 2. Satz 1. Scherzo (I. Satz)
Der Teufel tanzt es mit mir
[further comments, unrelated to order of music, etc.]
Fifth movement in short score (ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/5)
N.B. two versions of the fifth movement were drafted in short score; the first ending would have finished in B♭ major, 384 bars (the rejected folios are in ÖNB Mus.Hs.41000/9); instead Mahler deleted a passage of 8 bars after bar 298, replacing it with a longer transition, and revising the last part of the movement to finish the work in F♯ major, 400 bars. There are also issues of structural cuts in the 580 bars of movement IV, with some editions conflating bars together or cutting bars entirely (or adding bars to maintain parity between different sections with similar music).
The main conclusions that can be reached on the basis of Mahler’s numbering is that it is mostly consistent and represents Mahler’s last known intentions. While it is interesting that movement 4 was earlier considered in different order, and possibly 2 and 4 as potential finale movements, there is no real ambiguity about their rightful placement, especially as Mahler made many erasures on the cover page of movement 4 and left only the roman numeral ‘IV’ and the sobriquet (‘The devil dances with me’). Movements 2 and 3 also bear arabic numerals that concur with the roman numbering.
The only real remaining ambiguity of any significance is that Mahler did not erase the word ‘Finale’ on the partitur draft for movement 2, but even that movement title could be variously interpreted as meaning either ‘a Scherzo with the character of a Finale’, or ‘a Scherzo ending in the fashion of a Finale’, or ‘a Scherzo designed to lead into a Finale’ – none of which would mean it is literally the final movement of the work.
Obviously we cannot have a ‘final order’ for an unfinished work, as there are precedents for Mahler changing the order of internal movements after publication and performance (both II & VI). The best expectation is that the materials were left behind in a consistent fashion, which we find is in fact the case: there are five distinct movements each bearing a successive roman number in Mahler’s hand, with the last being given the title of ‘Finale’. That’s as clear as possible in the circumstances, and those who perform the symphony in alternate orderings are experimenting with the tinkering that Mahler obviously went through himself – but importantly, those erasures on the heading of movement IV carry double weight: they represent structural ideas that Mahler most definitely contemplated, but ultimately rejected. Philip @ © talk 18:55, 15 December 2013 (EST) [with minor subsequent revisions]