User:Clark Kimberling/Historical Notes 4
HISTORICAL NOTES for SOLOS FOR TREBLE INSTRUMENT
ESPECIALLY SOPRANO RECORDER
COLLECTION 4: AMERICANA TO 1865
Arranged/composed by Clark Kimberling
Arrangement titles begin with the letters A-Y.
Composition titles begin with the letter Z.
Most of the 180 solos in Collection 4 can be accessed by clicking SOLOS 4 - but first, read this: the solos occupy 179 pages and may take a minute to download, and your computer must have Acrobat or some other PDF reader. After viewing the solos, you may wish to print them and put them in a big notebook. However, before clicking SOLOS 4, you really should browse these Historical Notes, which are rich in links to in-depth information and many surprises.
If you play recorder, flute, violin, clarinet, or other instrument, you’ll certainly want to take a look at the music itself. Forty-five of the solos in Collection 4 are not included in SOLOS 4; they have been published separately. For details, visit Flute or Recorder. When you get there, be sure to view the Table of Contents.
These melodies represent American music from colonial times until the end of the Civil War. The melodies reflect, in the way that only music can, characteristics of the people who sang them and danced to them. Those Americans were a wonderfully diverse people, and so was their music.
HISTORIES OF MELODIES
There are 180 solos covered by Historical Notes 4, and 135 of them are in SOLOS 4. That leaves 45 solos that will be published separately, not in SOLOS 4. In the list below, the 45 solos are indicated by an asterisk (*).
ACRES OF CLAMS, also known as Lay of the Old Settler and by its Irish name, Rosin the Beau. Has been used as a waltz, a jig, and as a morris dance. Precedents as early as 1740 are noted at The Fiddler's Companion - scroll down to Rosin the Beau. Published in America as early as 1838 by Osbourn’s Music Saloon, Philadelphia.
ADVICE TO THE LADIES(*), composed by James L. Hewitt (1770-1827), a pioneer in American music publishing and composing. Hewitt immigrated from England in 1792 and resided at 59 Maiden Lane, New York City, from 1801 to 1810. At that address, he published music, including Advice to the Ladies. A leader in New York musical circles, he published at least 639 pieces, many by British composers, and some 160 of his own pieces. Hewitt’s son, John Hill Hewitt (see The Bugle Horn), together with three other sons and a daughter, are described in The Grove Dictionary of American Music.
AM I BORN TO DIE? in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America, 1960, and in Ananias Davisson’s Kentucky Harmony, 1815.
AMAZING GRACE(*), published as early as 1829, under different tune names and with different texts. First published with its modern tune name, New Britain, and with the words “Amazing grace, how sweet the sound” in William Walker’s Southern Harmony, New Haven, Connecticut, 1835. Visit Wikipedia.
AMERICA(*), tune also known as God Save the Queen, the British national anthem. The words, “My country, tis of thee…,” were penned by Samuel F. Smith in 1832. The identity of the composer of the tune remains unknown, although many sources assert that it was Thomas Augustine Arne (1710-1778), and many others, Henry Carey (1690-1743). Earliest known publication of the tune: Thesaurus Musicus, 1745.
AMERICAN CHIVALRY QUICK STEP(*), composed by Charles Jarvis, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1848. Dedicated to the Officers of the United States Army in Mexico.
AMERICAN REPUBLIC FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by Christian Nolff, published by P. Saracco, New York, 1849. This is one of several five-step waltzes in Collection 4. (Others are included in Collections 1 and 5.) The five-step waltz, in a distinctive 5-beat tempo, was a popular dance beginning about 1847. It is easy to find the steps for this dance described on the internet; however, it is quite possible that you have never met anyone who has danced the five-step waltz or seen anyone else dance it. See also the note for New York Polka Waltz. Rapid five-beat music can be a great deal of fun to play on an instrument; here is a list of the other five-beat pieces in Collection 4: Charruaud’s Five-Step Waltz, Hampton Five-Step Waltz, The Sylphide Five-Step Waltz, The Violet Five-Step Waltz, Zantabarbara, Zantaclara, Zantadiega, Zantafaya, Zantajoanna, Zantalouisa, Zantalucia, Zantamaria, Zoilea.
APPLETREE, adapted by Jeremiah Ingalls for his collection, The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805. See Behold a Lovely Vine. At the time Ingalls included this melody in his book, it was known as the Quick March in the opera Oscar and Malvina, composed by William Reeve, published in London, 1791. Download Hill Grimmett’s Jeremiah Ingalls – American Composer.
ARKANSAS TRAVELER(*), first published by W. C Peters in 1846, without identification of the composer. Visit The Arkansas Traveler.
AURA LEA, composed by George R. Poulton (1828-1867), copyrighted May 1, 1861 by J. Church, Jr., Cincinnati, Ohio. Popularized as Love Me Tender by Elvis Presley in 1956. Se and hear Elvis sing this melody.
AZMON, composed by Carl Gotthelf Gläser (1784-1829). Born in Wessenfels, Germany, Gläser moved to Barmen, Germany in about 1810, where he directed choruses and operated a music shop. His hymn tune, Azmon, was composed in 1828. Lowell Mason published an adaptation of the tune in The Modern Psalmist (Boston, 1839). The tune then became very popular in America, especially after wed to Charles Wesley’s poem, “O for a thousand tongues to sing” and published as hymn number 1 in a succession of Methodist hymnals. The name Azmon, given by Mason, is a place name from The Bible (Num. 34:4-5 and Jos. 15:4). For information on Mason, visit Cyberhymnal.
BACKSLIDER, composed by Samuel Wakefield (1799-1895) and published in The Minstrel of Zion, 1854. Samuel Wakefield built the first pipe organ west of the Allegheny Mountains. He was the great-grandfather of noted American composer Charles Wakefield Cadman (1881-1946). Visit a tribute to Samuel Wakefield.
BANGOR(*), first published for singing Psalm 12, by William Tans’ur, London, 1734. Very popular in the U.S. after publications in three different collections in Boston, during the years 1763-64.
BATTLE HYMN OF THE REPUBLIC(*), earliest known publication in Cincinnati, 1858; published as “Battle Hymn of the Republic” in 1862. Despite extensive searching, it is not known who composed this music, although the name William Steffe is often unconvincingly offered. For a lengthy discussion, see the account in James J. Fuld’s The Book of World-Famous Music.
BEACH SPRING(*), composed by Benjamin Franklin White (1800-1879), published in The Sacred Harp by B. F. White and E. J. King (3rd edition, 1859). Visit Wikipedia. For a likeness of B. F. White and his wife, visit George Pullen Jackson’s The Story of the Sacred Harp, 1844-1944.
BEAUTIFUL DREAMER(*), composed by Stephen Collins Foster (1826-1864). No copy older than that deposited with the U. S. Copyright Office, March 10, 1864, has been found. Among several informative websites are the Center for American Music. and Wikipedia.
BEHOLD A LOVELY VINE, adapted by Jeremiah Ingalls (1764-1838) as Lovely Vine from a traditional melody, Come All You Maidens Fair, for his distinctive collection, The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805, and republished by Da Capo Press in 1981, with added historical insights provided by David Klocko. The “short…and corpulent” Ingalls built a tavern in 1800, was elected a deacon of the Newbury (Vermont) Congregational Church in 1803, and was a leader in choral and instrumental activites. However, he was excommunicated from the Newbury church in 1810, and there is some hint that the trouble may have involved financial difficulties, possibly in connection with his 1805 book. Download Hill Grimmett’s Jeremiah Ingalls.
BIRMINGHAM, possibly first published as Brewer in Edward Miller’s Sacred Music, London, 1800. Published as Birmingham in Glasgow, 1805 and again in Andrew Law’s Harmonic Companion, Philadelphia, 1807. Thereafter, the tune was included in many American hymnals.
THE BIRTHDAY(*), composed by James Gaspard Maeder (c. 1809-1876), published by George P. Reed, Boston, 1842. Maeder was born in Dublin, Ireland and settled in Boston, Massachusetts about 1834. He coached singers and directed theater orchestras in various cities in which he and his wife, actress Clara Fisher, resided: New Orleans, Providence, Boston, Albany, and New York City.
BLISSFUL HOURS, in Minstrel of Zion, A Book of Religious Songs, Accompanied with Appropriate Music, Chiefly Original, by the Rev. William Hunter (1811-1877) and the Rev. Samuel Wakefield, published in Philadelphia, 1850. Blissful Hours is number 57, and a footnote suggests that the composer’s name might be found in a companion book, Select Melodies, but this appears to be untrue.
BLUE-TAIL FLY(*), possibly first published as Jim Crack Corn, or The Blue Tail Fly by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, 1846. Sung by The Virginia Minstrels. Said to be a favorite of Abraham Lincoln. Visit Wikipedia.
BOSTON, composed by William Billings (1746-1800), who was born in Boston and is widely regarded as the foremost representative of early American music. For a biographical sketch, visit The Music of William Billings.
BOSTON QUADRILLE, composed by William C. Glynn, the first in a collection of Bay State Quadrilles, “as performed at the Grand Ball at Faneuil Hall, March 4, 1844,” published by Henry Prentiss, Boston, 1841. See also Springfield Quadrille.
BOSTON QUICK STEP, composed by William J. Lemon, published by Lee and Walker, Philadelphia, 1846.
BUFFALO GALS(*), a minstrel song possibly first published by William Hall and Son, New York, 1848.
THE BUGLE HORN, composed by John Hill Hewitt (1801-1890), published in Baltimore, 1836. Hewitt, the first son of James L. Hewitt (see Advice to the Ladies), was prolific as a composer and writer. For a biographical sketch, visit Big Bands Database.
BUY A BROOM, also known as The Bavarian Girls Song, composer unknown, published in New York, 1827, having been popularized by the singing of Madame Lucia Elizabeth Vestris on the London stage in 1826. Repeatedly published in America, and still sung as Have You Ever Seen a Lassie.
CALIFORNIA GALOP, composed by Joseph Labitzky, published in Philadelphia, 1850. To view the original, scored for piano, visit American Sheet Music at the Library of Congress.
CAMPTOWN RACES, composed by Stephen Collins Foster, copyrighted February 19, 1850 by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore. The front cover of the earliest known publication refers to Foster’s Plantation Melodies as sung by the Christy & Campbell Minstrels and New Orleans Serenaders. See Beautiful Dreamer.
CAPTAIN KIDD, possibly first published in William Moore’s Columbian Harmony, Cincinnati, 1825.
CHARLESTOWN, possibly first published by Amos Pilsbury in The United States’ Sacred Harmony, Charleston, South Carolina, 1799.
CHARRUAUD’S FIVE-STEP WALTZ, arranged by J. C. Scherpf, published by William Vanderbeek, New York, 1847. The year 1847 is the earliest known date of publication for any five-step waltz, and there were at least two published that year. It is unclear whether this distinctive five-beat dance-and-music originated in America, England, or France. In any case, the present melody is entitled Valse à cinq temps, and is attributed to “Charruaud” as composer. However, no record seems to exist of a composer of that name. See New York Polka Waltz.
CHERRY RIPE, composed by Charles Edward Horn (1786-1849). After a career in London as an opera singer, Horn moved to America in 1832 and opened a music store in New York. He later moved to Boston and served as conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society. Visit Charles Edward Horn.
THE CHESAPEAKE, composed by Alexander Reinagle (c. 1750-1809), in Francis’s Ball Room Assistant (set of dances; includes instructions for dance steps), published by G. Willig, Philadelphia, undated. For biographical notes, visit The Philadelphia Sonatas. See Gavotta.
CHESNUT STREET POLKA, composed by James Bellak, published by Edward L. Walker, Philadelphia, 1849. Hundreds of nineteenth-century publications refer to addresses on Chesnut Street in Philadelphia. It seems likely that the alternate spelling was used in preference to and in awareness of the correct spelling, C-h-e-s-t-n-u-t. For a list of other compositions by Bellak, visit The Keffer Collection of Sheet Music. See Philadelphia Lions.
CHILDREN OF HUNGER, originally an Irish melody, published as number 41 in Patrick Weston Joyce’s Old Irish Folk Music and Songs, Cooper Square Publishers, New York, 1965 (originally published in 1909). Joyce writes (p. 23), "This is a song of the time of the American War of Independence. I learned it when a child from hearing it often sung: and two verses (with the air) have remained in my memory."
If any of those children of hunger shall cry,
I hope you will relieve them, that are now standing by;
I hope you will relieve them from hunger thirst and cold,
While we are in America like jolly soldiers bold—
With a fal-lal-li-da.
CINCINNATI HOP WALTZ, composed by W. C. Rayner, published by William Hall and Son, New York, 1850.
CINDY, in Alan Lomax’s Folk Songs of North America, 1960. Widely popular square dance and banjo tune, traced back to a minstrel song before the Civil War.
COLLEGE HORNPIPE, also known as Sailors’ Hornpipe, a favorite American hornpipe (dance) that originated in England or Scotland and was published in America as early as 1796. This tune served as the musical theme for the 20th century cartoon character, Popeye the Sailorman.
COLONEL CROCKETT, anonymous, published in Collection of the Most Admired Reels, Dances &c. by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, undated.
CONNECTICUT SHAKER DANCE, in Daniel W. Patterson’s Nine Shaker Spirituals, 1964, as Square Order Shuffle, by a convert “young in the faith” at Enfield, Connecticut, 1825.
CONTENTED SHEPHERD, composed by James Hook (1746-1827), an Englishman, several of whose estimated 2,000 pieces were published in America This particular melody was published in New York by J.&M. Paff. As for many early musical publications, this one was undated, but must have appeared before 1818, as the publishing firm of John and Michael Paff closed in 1817. Visit James Hook.
CORONATION(*), composed by Oliver Holden (1765-1844) of Charlestown, Massachusetts, near Boston. First published in Union Harmony, 1793, Coronation is the most frequently sung 18th-century American hymn tune. When George Washington visited Boston in 1789, Holden wrote the lyrics and score and trained the choir which sang the music that greeted Washington at the Old State House. Visit Cyberhymnal.
COUSIN CARRIE, composed by Dr. W. J. Wetmore, published by Firth, Pond & Co., in New York, 1849.
CRAWDAD(*), a folk song which probably originated in the southern United States. First verse:
You get a line and I'll get a pole, Honey,
You get a line and I'll get a pole, Babe.
You get a line and I'll get a pole,
We'll go fishin' in the crawdad hole, Honey, Baby mine.
DETROIT, possibly first published as Detroyt in Ananias Davisson’s A Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 1820. (The city of Detroit was incorporated in 1815.)
DETROIT SCHOTTISCH, composed by A. Couse, and published in Detroit, 1854.
DIXIE(*), possibly composed by Daniel Decatur Emmett and first performed in New York City, April 5, 1859. The enormous popularity of Dixie stems from its performance in New Orleans, April 9, 1860. For details on this famous minstrel song and Dan Emmett, see James J. Fuld’s The Book of World-Famous Music. Fuld cites as "the best history" Hans Nathan’s Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy, University of Oklahoma Press, 1962. While there is no doubt of Emmett’s leading role of the development of minstrelsy, the claim that he composed Dixie is challenged in Howard L. Sacks and Judith Rose Sacks, Way Up North in Dixie: A Black Family’s Claim to the Confederate Anthem (University of Illinois Press, 2003, first published by The Smithsonian Institution, 1993).
DOWN THE RIVER, DOWN THE OHIO(*), composed by Edwin Pearce Christy (1815-1862), published by William Hall and Son, New York, 1854. The historic performing group, Christy’s Minstrels, was founded by this composer and performer. For a portrait and biographical sketch, visit Keffer Collection: Philadelphia Composers.
EXULTATION, in Southern Harmony, 1835, and in one of Ananias Davisson’s collections, about 1820.
FADING FLOWERS, composed by the Rev. Samuel Wakefield, in The Minstrel of Zion, 1850. See Backslider.
FAREWELL EARTHLY GLORY, in Daniel W. Patterson’s Nine Shaker Spirituals, 1964, transcribed from a manuscript from Sabbathday Lake, Maine, 1849.
FASHIONABLE COTILLIONS 1,2,3, composer unknown, published probably before 1830 by John Paff, New York.
FIGHT ON, composed by John P. Rees and published in The Sacred Harp, 1859.
THE FLAG OF TEXAS, composed by Anthony F. Winnemore (1816-1851), published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1836. "Composed in honour of the Glorious Victory on the 21 of April 1836 and respectively Dedicated to General Samuel Houston…arranged for the Piano Forte by P. M. Wolsieffer." Philip Mathias Wolsieffer (born 1808 in Germany) was a mayor in New Jersey, and was conductor of the first singing society of Baltimore. Visit Sam Houston and Texas Revolution.
FLORIDA POLKA(*), composed by Albert Holland, published by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, 1849.
FLOWER OF GEORGIA, composed by J. C. Maszner, published by A. Fiot, Philadelphia, 1850.
FOUNDATION, possibly first published as Protection in Joseph Funk’s Genuine Church Music, Winchester, Virginia, 1832. This tune, found in many current denominational hymnals, has been described as "perhaps the most widely sung of any of the American folk-hymns"
THE FOX HUNT, composer unknown, published in Collection of the Most Admired Reels, Dances &c. by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, undated.
GAVOTTA, composed by Alexander Reinagle (c. 1750-1809), in Francis’s Ball Room Assistant (set of dances; includes instructions for dance steps), published by G. Willig, Philadelphia, undated. For biographical information, visit The Keffer Collection. See The Chesapeake.
GENTLE ANNIE(*), composed by Stephen Collins Foster, 1856. For lyrics, visit Civil War Favorites. See Beautiful Dreamer.
GEORGIA QUADRILLES, composed by Boneventura R. Lignoski, published by George Willig, Jr., Baltimore, 1851. The present arrangement is based on numbers 5 and 6 in the original collection of six quadrilles.
GEORGIA STOP WALTZ(*), composed by William Fisher, published by George Willig, Jr., Baltimore, 1851. The name stop waltz refers to a frozen moment during measures 24-25.
GERALDINE, composed by James Lord Pierpont (1822-1893), published in Baltimore, 1854. This composer (of Jingle Bells) was an uncle of banker J. P. Morgan (James Pierpont Morgan). Son of an abolitionist and Unitarian clergyman, Pierpont ran away from home at the age of fourteen. For biographical details and an account of Jingle Bells, visit Hymns and Carols.
GIVE US BACK OUR OLD COMMANDER, composed by Septimus Winner (1827-1902), published by Winner & Co., Philadelphia, 1862. Winner was one of the most successful of all American song composers. The "Old Commander" was "Little Mac" (for Union General McClellan), who had been removed from command. As a result of writing this song, Winner was charged with treason and jailed. The song became popular in 1864 when McClellan ran for president, and later, with different words, during U. S. Grant’s third-term presidential campaign. For a portrait and biographical sketch, visit Songwriters Hall of Fame.
GOD BLESS AMERICA!, composed by Dr. Robert Montgomery Bird (1806-1854), and registered for U. S. copyright on Math 17, 1834. That’s 84 years before Irving Berlin wrote the familiar song of the same name. For a fine image of Dr. Bird and description of his work as a novelist, visit Penn Library Exhibit. God Bless America! was published by Fiot, Meignen & Co., Philadelphia, 1834.
GONE TO ALABAMA, composed by Edwin Pearce Christy, published by Jaques and Brother, New York, 1847. See Down the River, Down the Ohio.
GONE TO BALTIMORE, composed by E. C. Phelps, published by William A. Pond, New York, 1881.
A GRACE OF NORTH CAROLINA, composed by J. F. Brandt, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1841. Actually, the title, Graces of North Carolina covers a collection of five waltzes, of which the first, Eugenia Waltz, is the one arranged here.
GROBE’S MINNESOTA WALTZ, composed by Charles Grobe (1817-1897), published by William Hall and Son, New York, 1853. For more on this prolific "producer of brilliant variations," visit American Instrumental Music.
HAIL TO THE CHIEF(*), composed by James Sanderson (1769-1841), for the play The Lady of the Lake, by Sir Walter Scott. Possibly the earliest performance in America took place on May 8, 1812, in New York City. By 1820, the song had been repeatedly published in America, and it is still played for presidential arrivals.
HAMPTON FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by J. A. G’Schwend, published by F. D. Benteen and Co., Baltimore, 1852. See American Republic Five-Step Waltz.
HARVEST, adapted by Jeremiah Ingalls from a traditional melody, The Blackbird, for The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805. Ingalls’ melody is especially interesting because of its length: 13 measures. In the arrangement, you’ll find the 13-measure theme used thrice. See Behold a Lovely Vine.
HE LEADETH ME, composed by William Batchelder Bradbury (1816-1868) and published in The Golden Censer, 1864. Bradbury was one of many composers influenced by Lowell Mason. Visit the Bradbury Collection at the Library of Congress.
HEAR ME, MAIDEN, a song popularized by the Jenny Lind, the "Swedish Nightingale." The New England Conservatory of Music owns an undated published copy on which the date Oct. 1847 is handwritten. No publisher is indicated. The two page printing includes text in both English and Swedish, and also the inscriptions "Jenny Lind’s Own Song" and "Composed by Mademoiselle Jenny Lind." However, Eva Danielson, senior archivist at Svenskt Visarkiv advises that the melody was printed by Isidor Dannström (1812-1897), presumably arranged by him from a folk tune during the 1840s. Both Lind and Dannström were on the staff of the Royal Theater in Stockholm in the early 1840’s and often had parts in the same operas. The melody as arranged by Josef Jonsson (1946) appears with revised words in Sweden Sings, published by Nordiska Musikfölaget, Stockholm, 1955. The words are in both Swedish and English. Under the Swedish title are the words "Dalpolska, sjungen av Jenny Lind." Visit Jenny Lind and Wikipedia.
Many books have been written about Jenny Lind. A highly recommended article is "Jenny Lind’s 1850 American Tour," by Thomas Ryan (1827-1903), in Classical Music Magazine, June 1996, pages 20-23. For a short account, visit America's Story.
HENRY CLAY’S QUICK STEP, composer unknown, published about 1831. The present arrangement is based on a single surviving page archived at the Library of Congress. (Presumably there was a cover that identified the publisher, if not the composer.)
HEY, DANCE TO THE FIDDLE AND TABOR, published by J. Hewitt’s Musical Repository, New York. An archival copy shows a handwritten dated of “ca. 1798”. Probably this melody originated in England and subsequently became popular in America.
HOLY MANNA(*), in William Moore’s Columbian Harmony, Cincinnati, 1825.
HONEY MOON, arranged by Joseph Dale (1750-1821). This "favorite dance" is one of many gems that has survived undated in a box (Box 109 in this case) in the Lester S. Levy Collection of Sheet Music at The Johns Hopkins University. Joseph Dale and sons were musicians and music publishers in London. Honey Moon was published in New York by J. & M. Paff before 1818.
HOPE, adapted by Jeremiah Ingalls from a traditional melody, The Mason’s Daughter, for The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805. See Behold a Lovely Vine. (Distinctive intervals as in measures 4 and 5 are also found in other pieces in the Ingalls collection. These intervals are characteristic of melodies in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. It seems likely that Ingalls "discovered" these intervals on his own and developed a taste for them.
INDEPENDENCE DAY, composed by James Cox Beckel (1811-1880), published as Come Youths and Maidens Fair by J. C. Beckel, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, undated. For a list of Beckel’s compositions, visit the Keffer Collection.
INDIANA WALTZ, composed by John R. Jennings, published by G. E. Blake, Philadelphia, 1840.
THE INGLE SIDE, composed by Thomas Van Dyke Wiesenthal (1790-1833), published in Philadelphia about 1826. The Ingle Side is listed at American Sheet Music as one of the great hits in American music for the year 1840. The words for the song were written by Scottish poet Hew Ainslie, who immigrated to America in 1825. "Ingle" is a Scottish word for fireplace.
JEANIE WITH THE LIGHT BROWN HAIR(*), composed by Stephen Collins, 1854. Visit Wikipedia. See Beautiful Dreamer.
JEFFERSON, in Tennessee Harmony, 1818.
JENNY LIND POLKA(*), composed by Anton Wallerstein (1813-1892), published by G. Willig, Baltimore, undated. There are several other nineteenth-century publications of this piece, allegedly composed by various composers. The earliest of these may be an arrangement by the dancing teacher Allen Dodsworth, dated 1846. See Hear Me, Maiden.
JUST AS I AM, composed by William Bradbury, 1849. Although known by the name Just As I Am (or Just As Thou Art), the actual name of the tune is Woodworth. For information on the composer, visit Cyberhymnal. See He Leadeth Me.
KATE OF CAROLINA, a minstrel melody arranged by A. F. Winnemore, published by G. P. Reed, Boston, 1847.
KEDRON, possibly first published by Amos Pilsbury in The United States’ Sacred Harmony, Charleston, South Carolina, 1799.
KENTUCKY MECHANIC’S FAIR POLKA(*), composed by Otto Ruppius, published by G. W. Brainard & Co, Louisville, 1853. The cover of the original publication is a magnificent color lithograph of the Exhibition Building of the Kentucky Mechanics Institute.
KENTUCKY POLKA, composed by J. C. Cook, published by Peters, Webb, and Co., Louisville, 1850.
KENTUCKY PRIDE, composed by T. L. Jephson, published by William Hall and Son, New York, 1857.
KNOWLEDGE OF JESUS, probably composed by Jeremiah Ingalls. It appears in his The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, 1805. See Behold a Lovely Vine.
LA CACHUCHA(*), a Spanish melody for a solo dance of the same name. According to Streetswing, the dance originated in Cuba in 1803 and was performed in the White House by Fanny Elssler (1810-1884). La Cachucha, La Cravocienne, and La Smolenska are among the melodies repeatedly published in the United States in connection with Elssler’s American tour-visit (1840-1842). She was immensely popular in Washington D. C., where she performed in The White House. The President and his cabinet received her in an official audience, and Congress adjourned early in order that congressmen could attend Elssler’s performances. For a sketch of Elssler’s interesting life, visit Andros on Ballet - Scroll down to the list of biographies and then click Elssler’s name.
LA CRACOVIENNE(*), a Polish melody for a dance of the same name. Repeatedly published in the United States as early as 1840, in connection with the dancing of Vienna-born Fanny Elssler. The name derives from that of Krakow, Poland. Cracovienne is listed at American Sheet Music as one of the great hits in American music for the year 1840. See La Cachucha.
LA SMOLENSKA(*), a Russian melody for a dance of the same name. The tune was published several times in the United States during the 1840s, in the wake of performances of the dance by Fanny Elssler. The name derives from that of Smolensk, one of the oldest cities in Russia. See La Cachucha.
LADY OF THE LAKE, a melody in the Dorian mode, published in Collection of the Most Admired Reels, Dances &c. by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, undated.
LEXINGTON RONDO, composed by Wilhelm Iucho, published by Firth and Hall, New York, 1831.
LIGHT, included as Missionary in Christian Harp, published in Pittsburgh, 1837.
LINCOLN QUICKSTEP, composed by Jessie Brinley, published by John Church, Cincinnati, during the 1860s.
LITTLE CHESHUNT, in Continental Harmony, 1857. Cheshunt is a city in England.
LOOZYANNA LOW GROUNDS, composed by Daniel Decatur Emmett (possibly the composer of Dixie) and presented in Hans Nathan’s Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy, University of Oklahoma Press, 1962.
LOVED ONES AT HOME, composed by James Pierpont as To the Loved Ones at Home, published in Boston, 1855. For more on this composer (of Jingle Bells), see Geraldine.
MARCHING TO THE PROMISED LAND, in The Minstrel of Zion, 1850 as Pilgrim Band. See Blissful Hours.
MARYLAND HORNPIPE, composed by Alexander Reinagle (c. 1750-1809), in Francis’s Ball Room Assistant (set of dances; includes instructions for dance steps), published by G. Willig, Philadelphia, undated. See The Chesapeake.
MEETING OF THE WATERS, a traditional Irish tune (Gaelic Ceann Deiginse, published as early as 1808), repeatedly published in America before 1840. The name refers to the land between Rathdrum and Arklow, in County Wicklow, Ireland.
MIDDLEBURY, possibly first published in the second edition of A Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony, compiled in the early 1820’s by Ananias Davisson (1780-1857).
MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS(*), composed by H. J. M. Holtzermann, published by Oliver Ditson, Boston, 1848.
MISSOURI WALTZ(*), composed by Carl Heinrich Weber (1819-1892), published by H. J. Peters and Co., Louisville, 1850. Weber, a cellist, went into business with Charles Balmer in 1848 in St. Louis. By the end of the 19th century, the Balmer & Weber Music House had become a very large publisher of parlor music.
MORNING SONG(*), possibly first published in Andrew Law’s Sixteen Tune Settings, Philadelphia, 1812. Much research on this tune and its interesting history is indicated by fourteen references in Raymond Glover’s Hymnal 1982 Companion.
MORNING TRUMPET, in William Walker’s Southern Harmony, 1854.
MOUNT VERNON POLKA, composed by Hauser, published by Lee & Walker, Philadelphia, sometime in the 1850’s. The Hauser Family were well known musicians of the time. It is not clear which member of the family composed Mount Vernon Polka.
MY HEART AND LUTE, composed by Sir Henry Rowley Bishop (1786-1855). Although Bishop was an Englishman – indeed, in 1842, he became the first musician to be knighted – there were more than one-hundred American publications of his music during his lifetime. My Heart and Lute is listed at American Sheet Music as one of the greatest American hits of the year 1830.
MY PRETTY JANE, composed by Sir Henry Rowley Bishop in 1830. See My Heart and Lute.
NANCY TEASE, composed by Edwin Pearce Christy, published by William Vanderbeek, New York, 1848. See Down the River, Down the Ohio.
NASHVILLE SULPHUR SPRING WALTZ, composed by C. H. Weber, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1841. For notes on Weber, see Missouri Waltz. Ann Toplovich of the Tennessee Historical Society writes that the Nashville Sulphur Spring is better known as Sulphur Dell and became immensely popular as a baseball park after 1870. Possibly Weber’s waltz is one of the earliest published references to the spring, which was near the ballpark, located in north Nashville near downtown.
NETTLETON(*), earliest known publication as Hallelujah in the shape-note collection, Wyeth’s Repository of Sacred Music: Part Second, Harrisburg, 1813. The name Nettleton dates from an 1852 publication and possibly honors Asahel Nettleton, who in 1824 published a collection of texts including the text now wed to Nettleton: “Come, thou Fount of every blessing...”
NEW UNION, adapted by Jeremiah Ingalls from a traditional melody (known under various names: Yorkshire, The Union, Cuba, and Cuba March) for The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805. See Behold a Lovely Vine.
NEW YORK LADIES 1,2, composed by William Dressler, published by Firth, Pond, and Co., New York, 1851. Dedicated to Mrs. J. J. Astor, Jr. This was the third of several very wealthy New York ladies of the same name during several generations. Her maiden name was Charlotte Augusta Gibbes, and she married John Jacob Astor III in 1847.
THE NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC’S WELCOME(*), composed by Isaac Baker Woodbury (1819-1858), published by Cook and Brother, New York, 1855. For a biographical sketch of Woodbury, visit Cyberhymnal. A spokesperson for the archives of the New York Philharmonic wrote in 2007 that the archive has no record of Woodbury's piece, which was published during the Philharmonic's 13th year. Visit the http://nyphil.org/ Philharmonic and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Philharmonic Wikipedia.
NEW YORK POLKA WALTZ, arranged by Aaron J. R. Conner, published by A. Fiot, Philadelphia, 1846. Nineteen arrangements of Conner’s own compositions are included in Collection 1. One of them is possibly the world’s best known five-step waltz, published in 1847. (Collection 1 also includes another of the earliest known five-step waltzes, undated, composed by Edward de Roland, who, like Conner, was a Philadelphia African-American composer.)
NIAGARA SCHOTTISCH, composed by H. Craven Griffiths, published in 1852. The meaning of Niagara, possibly of Iroquois or Huron origin, is not clear. In any case, Niagara Schottisch is named for Niagara Falls, on the Niagara River. Niagara Falls State Park is the oldest state park in America.
THE NORTH OF AMERIKAY, published as number 15 (pages 10-11) in Patrick Weston Joyce’s Old Irish Folk Music and Songs, Cooper Square Publishers, New York, 1965 (originally published in 1909).
The seventeenth of June last by the dawning of day,
Our ship she cast an anchor and landed in the bay;
Then our brave heroes bold they quickly marched away
To fight the Boston rebels in the north of Amerikay.
OK GALLOPADE, composed by John Hill Hewitt, 1840. (See The Bugle Horn.) The name refers to "OK" as in "okay", an American addition to the English language. According to a dictionary, "OK" traces back to 1839 as an amusing abbreviation for "All Correct," the humor being that neither O nor K is correct. In any case, "OK" was used in Van Buren’s 1840 presidential campaign. As a native of Kinderhook, New York, Van Buren was nicknamed Old Kinderhook, or OK. John Hewitt’s OK Gallopade thus dates back to a time when the expression, OK, was first sweeping into the English language. OK, and now today, OK is one of the world's most common expressions, and not only in English.
OH! SUSANNA(*), composed by Stephen Collins Foster, copyrighted February 25, 1848. (See Beautiful Dreamer.) Visit Wikipedia.
OH TAKE ME BACK TO TENNESSEE, composed by Charles H. Chandler, in The Melodies of Kunkel’s Nightingale Opera Troupe, published by Firth Pond & Co., New York, 1853.
OLD JIM RIVER, composed by Daniel Decatur Emmett (who probably composed Dixie) and presented in Hans Nathan’s Dan Emmett and the Rise of Early Negro Minstrelsy, University of Oklahoma Press, 1962, as Twill Nebber Do to Gib it Up So.
OMEGA, composed by Oliver Holden, and published in Continental Harmony: A Collection of the Most Celebrated Psalm Tunes, Anthems, and Favorite Pieces, Designed Particularly for 'Old Folk’s Concerts," and the Social Circle, 1857. For notes on the composer, see Coronation.
PAUVRE GENEVIEVE, composed by James L. Hewitt, published by J. Hewitt’s Musical Repository & Library before 1811. For information on the composer, see Advice to the Ladies. As with much early published sheet music, the first page gives information that spurred instant recognition (and sales) in its day: "Pauvre Genevieve, a Favorite Song as Sung with the Greatest Applause by Mrs. Darley & Mrs. Claude in the Opera of Hunter of the Alps."
PENNSYLVANIA COTILLION, composed by Valentine Dister, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1846.
PHILADELHIA LIONS, composed by James Bellak, published by E. R. Johnston, Philadelphia, 1849. See Chesnut Street Polka.
PHILADELPHIA RONDO, composed by W. Newland, published in Philadelphia, 1835.
PISGAH, possibly first published by Ananias Davisson, in the Supplement (about 1820) to his Kentucky Harmony.
POP GOES THE WEASEL(*), probably first published in London, and repeatedly published in America as early as 1854. Thousands of youngsters taking algebra have learned the quadratic formula by singing this tune to these words:
X equals negative b plus or minus square-root of
b squared minus 4 a c, all over 2 a.
Note the image just to the right. To see the words matched to notes, click the little button in the lower right corner.
PRESIDENT WASHINGTON’S MARCH, published by J. Hewitt, New York, 1799-1800 and by Henry McCaffrey, Baltimore, probably at about the same time. Both publications consist of a single sheet bearing two marches. The New York sheet is entitled The New President’s March, followed by a march not having its own title, followed by a march entitled Washington March. The Baltimore sheet is entitled Washington’s March, followed by the same two marches, the first untitled, and the second entitled Washington’s March at the Battle of Trenton.
PRIMROSE, in Allen D. Carden’s Missouri Harmony, 1820. No composer is mentioned in known publications until after 1850, when the names "Chapin" and "Aaron Chapin" are given. Hughes, vol. 2, describes a musical family with surname Chapin, but states that the name "Aaron Chapin" appears only in William Hauser’s collection, Olive Leaf, 1878.
PRINCETON SONG, found as Padlock in Captain George Bush’s notebook of Songs from the American Revolution. In her 1992 book of that name, Kate Van Winkle Keller writes that this song had been published in Universal Magazine in 1768 and performed in Princeton, New Jersey in 1774. Visit Colonial Music for more on George Bush (not related to the presidents), his notebook, and Keller’s book.
REDEEMING GRACE, in Southern Harmony, 1835.
REJOICE IN THY YOUTH, composed by Jeremiah Ingalls for his collection, The Christian Harmony or Songster’s Companion, published in 1805. See Behold a Lovely Vine.
RESTORATION, possibly first published in William Walker’s The Southern Harmony, 1835.
REUNION POLKA 1,2, composed by Edward J. Xaupi, published by Balmer and Weber, St. Louis, 1851. Xaupi was a dance teacher in St. Louis.
RONDO FANFARE, composed by Anthony Philip Heinrich (1781-1861), who included it and many similar pieces in his volumes, The Dawning of Music in Kentucky and The Western Minstrel, published in the 1820’s in Philadelphia, and reprinted together by Da Capo Press in 1972. The composer emigrated to America about 1810 and settled in Kentucky.
ROSA LEE, also known as Don’t Be Foolish Joe, a minstrel song published in New York as early as 1847.
ROSE OF TENNESSEE, composed by Alfred Squire, published by A. Fiot, Philadelphia, 1852.
ROSE ON THE MOUNTAIN, unknown, published in Collection of the Most Admired Reels, Dances &c. by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, undated.
SALVATION, originally in shape-note notation, in Kentucky Harmony, Harrisonburg, Virginia, 1816, compiled by Ananias Davisson, a farmer, printer, and singing teacher.
SAVANNAH, published as Herrnhut in John Wesley’s Foundery Collection, 1742. John Wesley, co-founder, with his brother Charles, of the Methodist Church, was an Anglican priest on mission to Georgia when he learned this tune from Moravians. The name he gave the tune is that of the city in Georgia. On returning to England, Welsey published the tune in the earliest of his several tunebooks. Savannah appears twice in The United Methodist Hymnal, 1989. Visit John Wesley's Time in Georgia and Savannah, Georgia.
SIEGE OF PLATTSBURG, in John A. Lomax and Alan Lomax’s American Ballads and Folk Songs, 1934, where it is traced back to a newspaper dated July 4, 1845. The tune is adapted from the Irish song, The Boyne Water. The Siege of Plattsburg was a battle during the War of 1812. Visit War of 1812 - People and Stories.
SIMPLE GIFTS(*), a Shaker melody, and a dance tune before it became a hymn tune wed to the words
Tis the gift to be simple,
tis the gift to be free,
tis the gift to come down where we ought to be.
Used by Aaron Copland in his Pulitzer-Prize winning ballet, Appalachian Spring, first performed 1944, and by Sydney Carter for his hymn-text "Lord of the Dance," 1964. It is commonly written that this tune was composed by Elder Joseph Brackett Jr. (1797-1882), but surviving records are inconclusive.
SION’S SECURITY, in New Harp of Columbia, 1867, an edition of a collection, published in Nashville, Tennessee, 1849, which may also have included Sion’s Security.
SISTERS, composed by James Hook, published in New York by J. & M. Paff, before 1807. See Contented Shepherd.
SOCIETY IN HEAVEN, composed by the Rev. Samuel Wakefield, in The Minstrel of Zion, 1857. See Blissful Hours.
SOUNDS FROM KENTUCKY, composed by Henry Rohbock, published by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, 1851.
SPARKLING AND BRIGHT, composed by James B. Taylor. Listed at American Sheet Music as one of the great hits in American music for the year 1830.
SPIRIT OF THE NORTH, a Civil War march composed by Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore, published in 1863. (See When Johnny Comes Marching Home.)
STAR IN THE EAST, may have first appeared in J. C. Washburn’s The Temple Harmony, 6th edition, Hallowell, Maine, 1826. Within six years, the tune with text "Brightest and best of the sons of the morning" appeared in a remarkable number of collections across the eastern part of the country.
THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER(*), the American national anthem. For many years, the composer of the music (published in England and America as The Anacreontic Song) was undetermined. The earliest publication may have been in 1779-1780, by Longman & Broderip, London. Fuld (identified in the references below) writes, “It has recently been established that John Stafford Smith was the composer of the music.” Fuld devotes nearly six pages to the history of the music and Francis Scott Key’s poem. Visit John Stafford Smith at Wikipedia.
SWEET FLORIDA GOOD BYE, composed by James G. Drake, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1835.
THE SYLPHIDE FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by Theodore Fry, published by George Willig, Jr., Baltimore, 1850. Regarding on the distinctive five-beat rhythm, see American Republic Five-Step Waltz.
TEXAS QUICK STEP, composed by Gustave Blessner, published by George Willig, Philadelphia, 1842.
THOUGH RIVERS BETWEEN US ROLL, composed (as The Itinerant’s Wife’s Adieu) by the Rev. Samuel Wakefield, in The Minstrel of Zion, 1857. See Blissful Hours.
TIPPECANOE HORNPIPE, composed by F. A. Wagler, published by F. D. Benteen, Baltimore, undated. The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought in Indiana Territory – not far from where Purdue University is situated in Tippecanoe County - on November 7, 1811. A hornpipe was a dance brought over from the British Isles. Possibly the name derives from an ancestor the bagpipe.
TURKEY IN THE STRAW, published as early at 1834 as Zip Coon. Alan Lomax includes this minstrel tune in The Folk Songs of North America, where he states that "The melody is a common Irish piper’s reel." However, Fuld lists several alleged precedents for the melody and states that "none seems a clear precedent."
VERMONT, composed by William Billings and published in The Singing Master’s Assistant, 1788. Billings (1746-1800) was one of the best-known American musicians of his century. In the four-volume set, The Complete Works of William Billings (The American Musicological Society and The Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1977-1990), we find that "Billings wrote more than three hundred compositions, virtually all of them settings of sacred texts, and he was active for three decades as a teacher of singing-schools." See Boston.
VERNON, possibly first published in Robert Patterson’s collection, Patterson’s Church Music, Pittsburgh, 1813. Charles Wesley’s famous poem based on Jacob’s scriptural wrestling with a stranger, beginning with the words, "Come, O! thou traveler unknown," was first paired with Vernon in Samuel L. Metcalf’s Kentucky Harmonist, Cincinnati, 1818. The tune then became so closely associated with Wesley’s text that it has sometimes been called Wrestling Jacob.
THE VIOLET FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by C. A. Löpke, published by George Willig, Jr., Baltimore, 1850. See American Republic Five-Step Waltz.
VIRGINIA, based on the English song Charming Chloe, published about 1730. The tune appeared as Virginia about 1754 and was probably first published in America in 1767. Thereafter, Virginia was published in America many times, and more frequently than in England. During the 1780s, an Anglican priest named John Wesley, founder of Methodism, published his final tunebook, Sacred Harmony, in which this tune appears as Hemmings. This tune and others in Sacred Harmony, many fitted to hymn texts written by another Anglican priest, Charles Wesley, brother of John Wesley, are no longer in common use. However, Charles Wesley’s text sung long ago to Virginia can be seen at Happy The Man. For access to a vast collection of historic Methodist materials including music during the Wesleys' lifetimes, visit the British Methodist Archives and Research Centre.
THE VIRGINIA REEL, composed by Alexander Reinagle (c. 1750-1809), in Francis’s Ball Room Assistant (set of dances; includes instructions for dance steps), published by G. Willig, Philadelphia, undated. See The Chesapeake.
WASHINGTON, composed by William Billings and published in The Singing Master’s Assistant, 1788. See Boston.
WHAT A WONDER! in The Minstrel of Zion, 1857 as The Convert’s Song. See Blissful Hours.
WHEN JOHNNY COMES MARCHING HOME(*), composed by Patrick Sarsfield Gilmore (pseudonym Louis Lambert). Copyrighted September 26, 1863. The tune has been called "Irish" by many, but Irish music authority Donal O’Sullivan wrote definitively that he did not believe the tune to be of Irish origin. Gilmore was born in Ballygar, County Galway, Ireland. He moved to Boston, Massachusetts when about 18 years old, eventually became a bandmaster, and was hailed by John Philip Sousa as "Father of the American Band." Visit the Patrick S. Gilmore Society and the Patrick Gilmore Collection.
WHO KILLED COCK ROBIN? in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America. The lyrics trace back to an English publication in 1744, and the tune is possibly even older. Said to be one of the most beloved of all English-language ballads, the context is an animal wedding in which all the animal guests are killed and eaten.
WONDROUS LOVE(*), first published in the 1840 printing of The Southern Harmony, New Haven, Connecticut, with the text, "What wondrous love is this, O my soul." Possibly, the composer was James Christopher of Spartanburg, South Carolina.
YALE POLKA, composed by P. A. Smith, published in 1849.
YANKEE DOODLE(*), probably well known before the American Revolutionary War in 1783. Very little secular music was published in America until 1790, so that it is not surprising that the earliest known printing of the music may have been in James Aird’s first volume of A Selection of Scotch, English, Irish and Foreign Airs, Glasgow, 1782. First known publication in America in The Federal Overture, 1794. The origins of Yankee Doodle have been the subject of much research, summarized in Fuld (listed in the references below).
THE YELLOW ROSE OF TEXAS(*), copyrighted September 2, 1858, by Firth, Pond & Co., New York. The front cover states that the song was composed and arranged for co-publisher Charles H. Brown by J.K. As Fuld writes, "The identity of J.K. is unknown." There is a legend that the song commemorates a woman who kept Santa Ana occupied so that he lost the battle of San Jacinto – but see Wikipedia and The Austin Chronicle.
ZACCATO-ZYRO, composed for Collection 4 by Clark Kimberling during 2004-2006. Many of these have melodic characteristics not totally inconsistent with those of melodies list above. Following is a list of the Z-solos:
Zaccato, Zamarack, Zamon, Zandy Beach, Zanglewood, Zannetta, Zantabarbara, Zantaclara, Zantadiego, Zantafaya, Zantajoanna, Zantalouisa, Zantalucia, Zantamargretta, Zantamaria, Zappa Zetta, Zatalpa, Zebulon, Zeenery, Zeffreyburgh, Zelebrity, Zestimminny, Ziccapadiccle, Ziddle Zack, Ziggiddy Zing, Zilkie, Zilla Zee Dee, Zincatation, Zingberry, Zipley Hill, Zippa Zola, Ziva, Zizzigi, Zobbit, Zockadoodle, Zoilea, Zolly May, Zondo, Zwestra, Zyro
SOURCES FOR NOTES IN COLLECTION 4
James J. Fuld, The Book of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular and Folk, Third Edition, Dover Publications, New York, 1985.
Raymond F. Glover, The Hymnal 1982 Companion (four volumes), The Church Hymnal Corporation, New York.
Charles W. Hughes, American Hymns Old and New, two volumes, Columbia University Press, 1980. Volume 2 is especially useful for biographical information and descriptions of early American books of sacred song.
Early American Music
The Colonial Music Institute
Popular Songs in American History
Center for American Music
Greatest Hists, 1820-60 (Library of Congress)
Smithsonian Folkways Recordings: American Folk Music
Histories of Many Melodies
The Fiddler's Companion
American Recorder Society
The Society of Recorder Players (British)
National Flute Association (American)
British Flute Society
Recorder Home Page
FiddleFork, an online fiddle community
ACCESS TO THE OTHER COLLECTIONS
Clicking will take you to Historical Notes, and from there you can download solos as PDFs (except for Collection 2, for which all the solos are published commercially).
Historical Notes for Collection 2: Christmas Carols; click here for access to the carols.
SOUND RECORDINGS - CLICK AND LISTEN
From Collection 4
Appletree, soprano recorder
Backslider (Samuel Wakefield), tenor recorder
Bangor, soprano recorder
Battle Hymn of the Republic, soprano recorder
Give Us Back Our Old Commander (Septimus Winner, soprano recorder
Hail to the Chief (James Sanderson), soprano recorder
Jenny Lind Polka (Anton Wallerstein), alto recorder
La Cachucha (Spanish-American), soprano recorder
Marching to the Promised Land, alto recorder
Morning Song (Elkanah Delsay Dare), tenor recorder
La Smolenska (Russian-American), soprano recorder
Pop Goes the Weasel (British-American), tenor recorder
Star in the East, tenor recorder
When Johnny Comes Marching Home, soprano recorder
Zantajoanna, soprano recorder
Zantalucheea, alto recorder
Zockadoodle, alto recorder
Zuniella, soprano recorder