HISTORICAL NOTES for SOLOS FOR TREBLE INSTRUMENT
ESPECIALLY SOPRANO RECORDER
COLLECTION 5: AMERICANA AFTER 1865
Arranged/composed by Clark Kimberling
Arrangement titles begin with the letters A-Y.
Composition titles begin with the letter Z.
Most of the 230 solos in Collection 5 can be accessed by clicking SOLOS 5 - but first, read this: the solos occupy 205 pages and may take a minute to download, and your computer must have Acrobat or some other PDF reader. After viewing the solos, you may wish to print them and put them in a really big notebook. Also, before clicking SOLOS 5, you really should browse these Historical Notes, in which you'll find many links to in-depth information, and many surprises.
If you play recorder, flute, violin, clarinet, or other instrument, you’ll want to take a look at the music itself. In these historical notes, you will find that many of the entries offer external links to in-depth information regarding the composers and their music.
American music also includes categories that are represented in other collections, each having its own Historical Notes:
Collection 1: African-American and Jamaican
Collection 4: Americana to 1865
Collection 7: Melodies by Women Composers
Collection 9: American Indian Melodies
After the Civil War, American music embraced new categories. John Philip Sousa, for example, already a successful theater composer, switched careers and became the March King. Elsewhere, the son of a Russian Jewish cantor moved to New York, became Irving Berlin, and increased the chromaticism of American music. The flow of melodies from Ireland continued, as did the American love of fiddling, popular songs, polkas, waltzes, and other dances. All of these developments are manifest in the notes which follow.
There are 230 solos covered by Historical Notes 5, and 186 of them are in SOLOS 5. That leaves 44 solos what will be published separately, not in SOLOS 5...for details, click here after March 30, 2008. In the list below, the 44 solos are indicated by an asterisk (*).
AFTER THE BALL IS OVER, composed by Charles K. Harris (1867-1930), published in 1892 by Chas. K. Harris & Co., Milwaukee. Extremely popular in its own day, and re-popularized by Jerome Kern in Show Boat in 1927. Visit the Biggest Hits of the 1890s.
ALABAMA SHUFFLE, composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs [and other dance tunes] for Violin, 1908. This large and rare collection is described as "Composed, Selected and Arranged by A. S. Bowman," about whom little seems to be known.
ALLEGRO MARZIALE, composed by John Philip Sousa, published in 1897. This little-known march is found in Act II of the comic opera, The Bride-Elect. For information on the March King and his compositions – and some surprises – visit Wikipedia. See The Stars and Stripes Forever.
AMERICAN PATROL(*), composed by Frank W. Meacham (1856-1909), published by W. B. Gray & Co., 1885. Popularized by Glenn Miller. Visit American Patrol.
APRIL SHOWERS, composed by Louis Silvers, published by Sunshine Music Co., New York, 1921. Popularized by Al Jolson over a period of many years.
ATISKET, ATASKET, published in A. H. Rosewig’s Nursery Songs and Games, 1879, as I Sent A Letter to My Love. Popularized by Ella Fitzgerald in 1938.
THE BAND PLAYED ON, composed by Charles B. Ward (1865-1917), published in the New York Sunday World, June 30, 1895, page 32.
BILL BAILEY, WON’T YOU PLEASE COME HOME? Composed by Hughie Cannon (1877-1912), published by Howley, Haviland & Dresser, New York, 1902. Possibly the real Bill Bailey was Willard Godfrey Bailey, a trombonist and music teacher in Jackson, Michigan, according to a series of 1966 articles in the Jackson Citizen Patriot.
BOSTON SCHOTTISCH, composed by Friedrich Karl, published by Oliver Ditson, Boston, 1878.
BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA(*), composed by John Philip Sousa, published by T. B. Harms, New York, 1916. Sousa composed this march at the request of Dr. Charles D. Hart, a scout leader in Philadelphia. A newspaper reporter wrote that the march "...visualizes the supple step of the boy marching, and not the heavy tread of the man." Visit Boy Scouts of America National Council.
BRIGHT SUNNY SOUTH, a tune "definitely recognizable as belonging to Irish traditional melody," if not also that of the American Civil War. For a discussion, see The Abelard Folk Song Book.
BROOKLYN LASSES, in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
CHARLESTON GLIDE WALTZ, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
CHICAGO REEL, in Captain Francis O’Neill’s Dance Music of Ireland, 1907. O’Neill has been hailed as "the Chicago police chief who saved Irish music." Chicago Reel is one of many tunes that can be called Irish-American, not (in this case) because the tune was brought over from Ireland, but because it was composed in America following the "letter and spirit" of traditional Irish music. For biographical information and tributes to O’Neill, visit the Irish West Cork Leader and Irish Culture and Customs As a final note, the name Chicago perhaps derives from an American Indian word chicagou, meaning "place of the onions," in reference to a hollow where wild garlic was found at the southern tip of Lake Michigan...or perhaps the name derives from that of the remarkable 18th-century Chief Chicagou.) Visit Chicago and The Irish of Chicago.
CHINGALINGALOO(*), composed by Max Hoffmann (1873-1963). Hoffman was born in Gnesen, Poland, came to the United States in 1875, and died in Hollywood, California, having been one of the most influential early ragtime composers and arrangers.
CINCINNATI HORNPIPE, in Elizabeth Burchenal’s American Country-Dances, 1918.
CITY OF SAVANNAH, composed by Frank Livingston, found in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995. Possibly the title refers to the sail steamer City of Savannah, built in 1877. Although Livingston is credited with several fine melodies in Ryan’s collection, little seems to be known about him.
CLEMENTINE, possibly first published as Oh My Darling Clementine, 1884, and attributed to Percy Montrose. However, the melody is quite similar to others, such as Ovio in Lowell Mason’s The Song Garden, Second Book, 1864.
COLONIAL DAMES WALTZ, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Company, Cincinnati, 1896. Visit the National Society of Colonial Dames of America.
CORCORAN CADETS, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by Harry Coleman, Philadelphia, 1890. The Corcoran Cadets were an elite drill team of young men in Washington D.C. The team name commemorates William W. Corcoran. "It was he," writes Paul Bierley, "who nearly changed American musical history by considering Sousa for a musical education in Europe. Sousa had declined this opportunity, and the march was probably a belated expression of appreciation."
CRY BABY WALTZ, composed by Charles Kinkel, published in 1866.
CUDDLE UP, composed by Irving Berlin (1888-1989), published by Ten Snyder Co., New York, 1911. Born Israel Baline in Tyumen, Russia, Berlin’s father was Jewish cantor who moved his family to the New York in 1893. Berlin, the composer of
was possibly the most successful of all American popular songwriters. According to The Grove Dictionary of American Music, he was self-taught as a pianist and played "in an unconventional manner, using predominantly the black keys on an instrument that [had] a lever under the keyboard for automatic transposition…he has published about 1500 songs, a remarkable number of which are familiar throughout the world." Visit Parlor Songs.
CUDDY HUNK, in Howe’s 1,000 Jigs and Reels, originally published by Elias Howe in the 1860’s, republished by Mel Bay, 2001. The name refers to Cuttyhunk Island, Massachusetts. Visit Cuttyhunk Lighthouse.
CUMBERLAND GAP, a tune of uncertain origin, played as early as the 1920’s by fiddlers in Rock Ridge, Alabama. The name refers to a pass in the Appalachian Mountains. Its fame extends from the year 1773, when Daniel Boone led settlers through the pass into Kentucky. Visit Cumberland Gap at Wikipedia.
CYCLOID POLKA, composed by Charles Kinkel, published and copyrighted in 1873. As an adjective, “cycloid” means, loosely, arranged in circls, or progressing in circles. As a noun, a cycloid is the curve formed by a tack on the rim of a wheel rolling on a straight path.
DAISY BELL, music and words by Harry Dacre, an Englishman visiting the United States. Copyright deposits in both Washington and London, 1892. Also known as A Bicycle Built for Two, with first line "Daisy, Daisy, give me your answer, do!"
DODWORTH’S FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by Charles Nolff, published by Frederick Blume, New York, 1877. The title refers to Allen Dodworth (1822-1896), a prominent musician and dance teacher. The origin of the distinctive five-step waltz, for which music was published as early as 1847, is not well documented, but it seems more likely that the dance was invented by Jules-Joseph Perrot rather than by Dodworth. A detailed account is given in the Historical Notes for Collection 1, in connection with A. J. R. Conner’s Five Step Waltz. Collection 4 also contains a number of examples of rapid fun-to-play five-beat pieces. Others in Collection 5 are Loretz’s Five-Step Waltz, Mahler’s Five-Step Waltz, Saratoga Five-Step Waltz, Winner’s Five-Step Waltz, and newly composed solos Zantacecilia, Zantaclarissa, Zantacleopatra, Zantagertrudis, Zantapollyanna, and Zantazipporah.
DOWN IN THE VALLEY, a tune possibly first published with the lyrics, "Down in the valley, the valley so low," in Tommy’s Tunes, collected by F. T. Nettleingham, London, 1917.
THE DYING COWBOY, possibly first published in John Avery Lomax’s Cowboy Songs, and Other Frontier Ballads, 1910.
EAST TENNESSEE BLUES(*), recorded as early as 1927, by Al Hopkins & His Buckle Busters, with fiddler Charlie Bowman.
ESSENCE OF AMERICAN PATRIOTS(*), composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs [and other dance tunes] for Violin, 1908. According to The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, an essence was a minstrel dance characterized by shuffling steps.
ESSENCE OF OLD KENTUCKY(*), in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
ESSENCE OF OLD PHILADELPHIA(*), composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs, [and other dances], for Violin, 1908.
THE FAIREST OF THE FAIR(*), composed by John Philip Sousa, published by John Church, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, 1980. The Fair refers to the Boston Food Fair, an annual exposition. In fond memories of a particularly fair young lady employed at the Fair, Sousa named the piece The Fairest of the Fair. It was premiered at the Fair on September 28, 1908.
FINNEGAN’S WAKE, an Irish-American melody sung as early as 1870 as a vaudeville tune, and published in Downes and Siegmeister’s A Treasury of American Song, 2nd ed., Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1943.
FIRST LOVE MAZURKA, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
THE FIRST NIGHT IN AMERICA, in Captain Francis O’Neill’s Dance Music of Ireland, 1907. See Chicago Reel.
FLORIDA CRACKER, composed by Ellis Brooks, published by S. Brainard’s Sons, New York, 1899. Cracker was originally a pejorative term applied to poor southern whites. However, according to Wikipedia, since 1900 cracker has become a proud or jocular self-description.
THE FLYING TRAPEZE, possibly first published in London, 1867, and copyrighted in America in 1868. Fuld states that the song, sometimes called The Man on the Flying Trapeze, was based on a real-life acrobat named Léotard, who introduced the flying trapeze act in London in the 1860’s. The theme may be heard in works of Offenbach (1860) and Johann Strauss (1867).
FORT SMITH BREAKDOWN, recorded as early as the 1920’s by Luke Highnight's Ozark Strutters.
FREEDOM MARCH, composed by Harry Appel, published by Fred G. Heberlein, New York, 1911.
THE FROZEN LOGGER, composed in 1926 by James F. Stevens, a professional logger who also authored the amazing lyrics for this song, as well as an American epic novel, Paul Bunyan. For biographical information, visit Oregon Cultural Heritage. For the amazing lyrics, google "Frozen Logger".
THE GIRLS OF BOSTON, composed by Edwin Christie, published by Oliver H. Ditson, New York, 1882. The composer’s name is sometimes confused with that of Edwin Pearce Christy, an earlier American composer who is represented in Collection 4. The confusion is so widespread that the famed minstrel group "Christy’s Minstrels" is often misrepresented as "Christie’s Minstrels."
GOOD NIGHT, IRENE, a waltz popularized by Huddie Ledbetter [“Leadbelly” (1885-1949)], who learned it from his uncle and said there really was an Irene.
GRANDFATHER’S CLOCK(*), composed by Henry Clay Work, 1876. A composer of Civil War and temperance songs, Work also invented machines and toys. For a biographical sketch and presentation of Work’s tunes, visit The Music of Henry Clay Work.
GREEN MOUNTAIN VOLUNTEERS, an Irish-American tune in Elizabeth Burchenal’s American Country-Dances, 1918.
GUIDANCE, a hymn tune composed by Lyman Foster Brackett, 1887. This hymn could be called the theme song of the Christian Science denomination. The words for which it was composed are by the founder of that denomination, Mary Baker Eddy (1820-1910), whose contributions to American hymnody are summarized at Cyberhymnal. For information on Brackett’s work as compiler of the first Christian Science Hymnal, visit Longyear Museum.
GYPSY DAVY(*), a folk song found in many regions of the United States, which, as for many such folk songs, has a British origin. This one is included in Francis James Child’s important 1882 collection, The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. The song was popularized by Woodie Guthrie.
HAIL TO THE SPIRIT OF LIBERTY, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Co., Cincinnati, 1900. Sousa and the famous Sousa band premiered this march at the presentation of the Lafayette Monument in Paris, on Independence Day, 1900.
HASTE TO THE WEDDING, an Irish-American jig published in White’s 100 Popular Hornpipes, Reels, Jigs, and Country Dances by Jean White, Boston, 1880.
HELLO MY BABY, composed by Joseph E. Howard (1878-1961) and Ida Emerson, published by T. B. Harms & Co., New York, 1899. This was the earliest famous song to celebrate the telephone, invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876.
HOME ON THE RANGE, the Kansas State Song, composed by Daniel E. Kelley, probably in 1872. Until 1949, the origins of the music and words were questioned. An account of the fascinating tracking of the origins is given by Kirke Mechem, "Home on the Range," Kansas Historical Quarterly, November 1949. Visit Home on the Range.
A HOT TIME IN THE OLD TOWN TONIGHT, composed by Theodore A Metz (1848-1936), published by Willis Woodward & Co., New York, 1896.
HUMORS OF BOSTON, in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995. This Irish-American tune is one of many humours. Music historian Brendan Breathnach explains that the word humour (British spelling of humor) in a title denotes character, mood and exuberance of spirit. It is used only with the name of a place and always precedes it.
I BEG YOUR PARDON, composed by Irving Berlin, published by Ted Snyder Co., New York, 1911. See Cuddle Up.
I MUST AND I WILL GET MARRIED, an English-American melody collected from the singing of Mrs. Margaret Jack Dodd at Beechgrove, Virginia, May 25, 1918 by Cecil J. Sharp, and published in his famous collection, English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalacians.
IN FLORIDA, composed by Louis F. Gottschalk (1864-1934), published by Edward Schuberth & Co., New York, 1901. Louis F. Gottschalk was a nephew of Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869), a renowned American concert pianist and composer.
IN MY MERRY OLDSMOBILE, composed by Gus Edwards, published 1905. Visit the composer. The last Oldsmobile rolled off the production line on April 29, 2004.
IN THE GOOD OLD SUMMER TIME(*), composed by George Evans (1870-1915), published by Howley, Haviland & Dresser, New York, 1902.
THE INVINCIBLE EAGLE, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Co., Cincinnati, 1901. Dedicated to the Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, New York, Summer, 1901. Visit Willow Grove Park, Philadelphia, where this march was premiered on Memorial Day, 1901. Visit Music and Musicians at the Pan-American Exposition.
IOWA POLKA, composed by J. N. Coolman, published by J. L. Stewart, Ottumwa, Iowa, 1876.
IRMA WALTZ(*), in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
IRON HEAD’S SONG, in John and Alan Lomax’s American Ballads and Folk Songs, 1934, as My Yallow Gal, sung by Iron Head, an inmate of the Texas Department of Corrections at Central State Farm near Sugarland, Texas.
JANUARY THE EIGHTH(*), a traditional Southern fiddle tune, originally named Jackson’s Victory to commemorate Andrew Jackson’s defeat of British soldiers at New Orleans on the eighth of January, 1815. For details, see The Eighth of January at The Fiddler's Companion.
JAY BIRD, in Dorothy Scarborough’s Song Catcher in Southern Mountains: American Folk Songs of British Ancestry, Columbia University Press, 1937.
JEFFERSON AND LIBERTY(*), an Irish-American tune in Elizabeth Burchenal’s American Country-Dances, 1918. For a poem "Jefferson and Liberty" sung to a traditional Irish tune, visit Jefferson and Liberty.
JOHN HENRY, in Alan Lomax’s Folk Songs of North America, 1960. Lomax discusses both the legend and the tune at length. The legend was traced by L. W. Chappell, in his book, John Henry, to the Big Bend Tunnel on the Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad in the West Virginia mountains about 1870. John Henry, a six-foot-tall black man ‘of pure African blood,’ could out-sing and out-drive all other railroad workers. Swinging a 20-pound hammer in each hand, he competed with a new steam drill and won. Visit John Henry at Wikipedia.
JOHNNY APPLESEED, a traditional American melody. Visit Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman).
JOHNNY HAS GONE FOR A SOLDIER, in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America.
JUMP JIM CROW, composed by Sigmund Romberg (1887-1951), published in 1917. Romberg was born in Nagykanizsa, Hungary, and moved to the United States in 1909. In New York, he started a small band and came to the attention of the influential Shubert brothers. By 1928, he had become a leading composer of operettas, including The Student Prince. Visit Big Bands Database. and Wikipedia.
THE KANGARO, in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America. Possibly first published in an English joke book in 1627; kangaro is a substitute for carrion crow.
KANSAS SALLY, composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs [and other dance tunes] for Violin, 1908.
KATY’S RAMBLES, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
KING COTTON(*), composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Co., Cincinnati, 1895. This march was premiered at the Cotton States and International Exposition in 1895, at Piedmont Park in Atlanta. For the meaning of the pre-Civil War phrase "King Cotton," visit Wikipedia.
LAURA POLKA, composed by H. Schonaker, dedicated to Laura E. Kirkman of Evansville, Indiana, published by George W. Warren, Evansville, 1873.
LEG OF MUTTON, composed by Sigmund Romberg, published by Jos. W. Stern, New York, 1913. See Jump Jim Crow.
LIBERTY BELL, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Co., Cincinnati, 1893. For the story of the naming of this march, visit Wikipedia. Also, read about the bell itself, in Philadelphia.
LITTLE BIRD, LITTLE BIRD, in Ruth Crawford Seeger’s American Folk Songs for Children in Home, School and Nursery School, 1948.
LITTLE BROWN JUG(*), a song “put into shape and filled up by,” and copyrighted by, Joseph Eastburn Winner (1837-1918) of Philadelphia. Published by at least three different companies in 1869. Joseph was the younger brother of the famous songwriter Septimus Winner. See Winner’s Five-Step Waltz.
LIZA JANE, in John and Alan Lomax’s American Ballads and Folk Songs, 1934, as received from James Howard, a blind mountain fiddler from Harlan, Kentucky.
LORETZ’S FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by John M. Loretz, Jr., published by Wm. A. Pond, New York, 1880. See Dodworth’s Five-Step Waltz.
LOUISVILLE CLOG(*), composed by Frank Livingston, found in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
LOUISVILLE HORNPIPE, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
LOVE’S BEGUILING, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by J. M. Stoddart & Co., Philadelphia, 1880.
MAHLER’S FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by Jacob A. Mahler, published by Balmer & Weber, St. Louis, 1885. A page in this publication gives the steps for the five-step waltz, as taught at Jacob A. Mahler’s Schools for Dancing in St. Louis:
Slide right foot to second position,: : Count One
Draw the left foot to first position,: : Count Two
Slide right foot to second position,: : Count Three
Draw right foot back to first position,: : Count Four
Place left heel over right toe.: : Count Five
The above step is for the lady. The gentleman begins
with the LEFT foot, except on the FIFTH count, placing
his right foot BACK of the left foot in fourth position.
After the pupils have learned the steps well, let them spring on EACH step, dancing the whole dance on the ball of the feet.
For more about the five-step waltz and its distinctive music, see Dodworth’s Five-Step Waltz.
MANHATTAN REEL, composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs [and other dance tunes] for Violin, 1908.
MANHATTAN WALTZ(*), composed by Johann Strauss, published by Charles H. Ditson & Co., New York, 1873. The composer was the Viennese "Waltz King." This work, dedicated "To the Metropolis of America," was composed expressly "for his Concerts in New York, July, 1872."
MEET ME IN ST. LOUIS, LOUIS(*), composed by Kerry Mills (1869-1948), published by F. A. Mills, New York, 1904. Composed for the St. Louis World's Fair, 1904. For lyrics, visit St. Louis. The composer’s full name was Frederick Allen Mills.
MELTON’S PARADE, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
THE MERRIEST GIRL IN THE VILLAGE, composed by Edwin Christie, published by Oliver Ditson & Co., Boston, 1871. See The Girls of Boston.
MISSISSIPPI HORNPIPE, composed by Frank Livingston, found in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
MISSISSIPPI SAWYER, in George P. Knauff's Virginia Reels, volume IV, published in Baltimore, 1839. A "sawyer" was an uprooted tree bobbing partially submerged in a river. Sawyers were a hazard to Mississippi River boats.
MONEY, composed by Billy May, published by Bay State Music Co., Brockton, Massachusetts, 1922.
MONEY MUSK(*), composed by Scottish fiddler Daniel Dow in 1776. The melody became a favorite Scots-American fiddle tune. For an extensive historical account, visit The Fiddler's Companion.
MOUNT VERNON POLKA, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
MOUNTAIN FUNERAL, in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America as Wicked Polly. Lomax writes (page 71), "Pieces of this type often sung at mountain funerals." A few pages before, he discusses the lyrics and their usefulness at funerals at which those attending understood that "Hell was a place, headquarters for a real Satan...the Devil dragged Wicked Polly screaming down to Hell. Her story, set to an old ballad air, caught the imagination of folk. It was reprinted in a score of rural song-books, was carried as far south as Jamaica and as far west as Iowa, and it is still sung by Southern Hard Shell Baptists as a warning..."
MY BONNIE LIES OVER THE OCEAN, composer unknown, published in the 2nd edition of William H. Hills’s Students’ Songs, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1881.
MY LOVE IS IN AMERICA(*), a reel in Captain Francis O’Neill’s Dance Music of Ireland, 1907. See Chicago Reel.
NEW YORK REEL, in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
NIAGARA HORNPIPE, in Ryan’s Mammoth Collection, 1883, republished by Mel Bay, 1995.
NINE HUNDRED MILES(*), an American folk song of unknown origin, performed and recorded as early as 1955 by Sam Hinton.
OFF TO CALIFORNIA, a reel in Captain Francis O’Neill’s Dance Music of Ireland, 1907. See Chicago Reel.
OH WHERE HAS MY LITTLE DOG GONE? in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
OLD BOSTON BAY, composed by Septimus Winner (1827-1902), published by Lee & Walker, Philadelphia, 1873. For a biographical sketch of Winner – one of America’s foremost 19th century melodists – visit The Music of Septimus Winner.
OLD HEN CACKLED, traced back as far as 1929 at The Fiddler's Companion.
OLD MACDONALD HAD A FARM, a folk song; first known printing of the familiar music and words together was in Tommy’s Tunes, published in London, 1917.
ON PARADE MARCH, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by T. B. Harms & Co., New York, 1892. When Sousa orchestrated J. Cheever Goodwin and Richard Stahl’s comic opera, The Lion Tamer, he included this march as The Lion Tamer. Later, it was published as On Parade March. The Lion Tamer was performed in January, 1893, in The National Theatre, Washington, D.C.
ON THE TRAMP MARCH, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by Hitchcock Publishing House, New York, 1879. The march is based on Septimus Winner’s song, Out of Work, at a time when the idiom "on the tramp" meant "looking for employment."
OVER THE HILL TO THE POOR HOUSE, composed by David Braham, published by Wm. A. Pond & Co., New York, 1874. See John Charles Franceschina’s book, David Braham: The American Offenbach, Routledge, New York, 2003.
PADDYWHACK, American song of obscure origin, also known as This Old Man and Knick Knack Paddywhack. Included in Ruth Crawford Seeger’s American Folk Songs for Children, 1948.
THE PAW PAW PATCH, in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America. The pawpaw is a species of tree, as described at Pawpaws. Lomax (p. 78) offers The Paw Paw Patch as one of many early American dance tunes, back when "in spite of churchly proscriptions, the lusty young people of the Midwest couldn’t keep from dancing…In most communities, square-dancing to fiddle music was left to the riff-raff and the foreign element."
PIE IN THE SKY(*), another name for the tune Sweet By and By, composed by Joseph P. Webster, 1868.
POSSUM UP A GUM STUMP, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
PRETTY BLUE EYED JO, composed by Joe Lang, published by Kunkel Brother, St. Louis, 1870.
PUT YOUR LITTLE FOOT(*), traditional American dance tune, also known as Varsovienne. Popular in Arizona for many years prior to its inclusion in 1948 in Viola "Mom" Ruth’s Pioneer Western Folk Tunes. (Mom Ruth was an Arizona state fiddle champion.)
RAGTIME VIOLIN!(*), composed by Irving Berlin, published by Ted Snyder, New York, 1911. See Cuddle Up.
RIGHT LEFT MARCH(*), composed by John Philip Sousa, published by Otto Sutro & Co., Baltimore, 1894.
ROSE OF ALABAMA, in Howe’s 1,000 Jigs and Reels, originally published by Elias Howe in the 1860’s, republished by Mel Bay, 2001.
ROW, ROW, ROW YOUR BOAT, possibly composed by E. O. Lyte, who included it in The Franklin Square Song Collection, New York, 1881.
ROW YOUR BOAT(*), a second arrangement of the preceding melody.
ST. DAVID, composed by Clark Kimberling in 1975, published as No. 766 in Supplemental Tunes (to the Episcopal Hymnal 1940).
SAN FRANCISCO BOUND, composed by Irving Berlin, published by Waterson, Berlin & Snyder, New York, 1913. See Cuddle Up.
SARASPONDA(*), a folk song possibly of American origin. Although Sarasponda is sometimes called a Dutch spinning song, researchers have not been able to find a Dutch source. Printed during the 1940s by the Florida Methodist Youth Fellowship in a collection entitled Sing for the Fun of It.
SARATOGA FIVE-STEP WALTZ, composed by Ernest C. Walston, published by J. W. Pepper, Philadelphia, 1883.
SATISFIED WITH UNCLE SAM, composed by Terry Sherman, published by F. J. A. Forster, Chicago, 1916.
SHAKE HANDS WITH UNCLE SAM, composed by Charles Carroll Sawyer, published by C. C. Sawyer, Brooklyn, New York, 1866.
SHORT’NIN’ BREAD(*), possibly first published in E. C. Perrow’s "Songs and Rhymes from the South," in Journal of American Folklore, 1915, with words different from those now associated with the tune. Dorothy Scarborough’s On the Trail of Negro Folk-Songs, 1925, includes both the familiar tune and words, together.
SILVER THREADS AMONG THE GOLD(*), composed by Hart Pease Danks, published by Charles W. Harris, New York, 1873.
SINGLE GIRL, in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America. First verse:
When I was single, I went dressed so fine,
Now I am married, go ragged all the time.
Lomax sets the context with another old pioneer song:
Come all you Virginia girls and listen to my noise,
Don’t go with them Tennessee boys,
For if you do, your fortune will be
Hoecake and hominy and sassafras tea.
SKIP TO MY LOU, a play-party song in John and Alan Lomax’s American Ballads and Folk Songs.
SMICK, SMACK, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by W. F. Shaw, 1878. Before Sousa became the March King, he composed a number of songs, comic operas, and waltzes. This one, originally Smick, Smack, Smuck, was written for a minstrel routine.
SMOKY MOUNTAIN SCHOTTISCHE, in Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
SOURWOOD MOUNTAIN, in John and Alan Lomax’s American Ballads and Folk Songs, 1934, as received from James Howard, a blind mountain fiddler from Harlan, Kentucky. Probably, Sourwood Mountain was an old name for one of the elevations in the coal mining country of Clay Country, Kentucky.
STAR OF LIGHT, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by Wm. A. Pond & Co., New York, 1882. The title refers to Bessie Beach’s poem to which the melody is set. In the poem, the "Star of Light" is an angel.
STATE OF ARKANSAS, an Irish-American folk song first sung by Irishmen brought in to work in unfavorable conditions on railroads in Arkansas.
THE STEAMBOAT, found in White's 100 Popular Hornpipes, Reels, Jigs and Country Dances for the Violin, Boston, Jean White, 1880. White’s rare volume and others are described at The Henry Reed Collection.
STEAMBOAT WALTZ, in Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
SWEET BY AND BY(*), composed by Joseph P. Webster, 1868. Visit Cyberhymnal.
SWEET MISS INDUSTRY, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by John F. Ellis & Co., Washington, D.C., 1888.
SWEETHEART(*), composed Sigmund Romberg as Will You Remember (Sweetheart) by G. Schirmer, New York, 1917. See Jump Jim Crow.
TA-RA-RA BOOM-DE-AE, composed by Henry J. Sayers (1854-1932), published by Willis Woodward & Co., New York, 1891.
TAKE ME OUT TO THE BALL GAME(*), composed by Albert von Tilzer, copyrighted 1908. Visit Parlor Songs.
TARANTELLA, composed by John Philip Sousa, published by The John Church Company, Cincinnati, 1897. This is an instrumental interlude in Act II of the comic opera The Bride-Elect. See Allegro Marziale.
TERRA BEATA, a favorite hymn tune in America after its introduction in the hymnal Alleluia (The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1916). In Guide to the Pilgrim Hymnal (United Church Press, Philadelphia, 1966), Ethel K. Porter writes that she found a tune named Rusper in The English Hymnal (1906; music editor, Ralph Vaughan Williams) and "realized that it must be the melody that Franklin L. Sheppard said he had learned from his mother as a boy and later adapted" [for the text in Alleluia, of which Sheppard was the editor]. In Alleluia, Terra Beata is captioned "Traditional English Melody arranged by S. F. L." Recent correspondence with folk-song historians in England has established that Rusper is still number 379 in The English Hymnal,1980 edition, and that the tune-name, Rusper, was probably taken from the name of the town in England in which the tune was collected. Although Ralph Vaughan Williams was an important collector – before he became one of England’s leading composers – it is uncertain who collected Rusper.
TEXARKANA HORNPIPE, an Irish-American tune in Elizabeth Burchenal’s American Country-Dances, 1918.
TEXAS GALOP, traditional American dance tune, recorded as early as 1929 by A. L. “Red” Steeley, Arlington, Texas.
TEXAS, WHERE THE MOCKIN’BIRD IS SINGIN’, composed by Phil Epstein, published by the Passenger Department of the Texas & Pacific Railway, 1898.
THINKER AND TINKER(*), composed by A. S. Bowman and published in The J. W. Pepper Collection of 500 Reels, Jigs, Clogs [and other dance tunes] for Violin, 1908.
THREE YOUNG LADIES, a folksong collected by Ken Peacock from the singing of Mr. and Mrs. Ken Monk, King’s Cove, Newfoundland. Included in Alan Lomax’s The Folk Songs of North America. The lyrics – Three young ladies went out for a walk, Allalee and alone-ee-o, They met a robber on the way – are remarkably simple and tragic.
TRAMP, TRAMP, TRAMP, composed by George Frederick Root (1820-1895), published by Root & Cady, Chicago, 1865.
UNCLE SAM, composed by J. J. White, published by Wm. H. Bone & Co., Philadelphia, 1874.
VIRGINIA ROSEBUD, in Howe’s 1,000 Jigs and Reels, originally published by Elias Howe in the 1860’s, republished by Mel Bay, 2001.
WAIT UNTIL YOUR DADDY COMES HOME, composed by Irving Berlin, published by Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co., New York, 1912.
WALTZ OF SOUTHERN BEAUTY, a waltz composed by G. Valisi, published by Valisi Bros., Chicago, 1895.
WALTZ SONG(*), composed by John Philip Sousa, published as The Lilies of Your Love May Die and captioned Waltz Song by The John Church Company, New York, 1899. This song started out in the operetta The Charlatan, first performed in Montreal in 1898.
WASHINGTON HORNPIPE, found in White's 100 Popular Hornpipes, Reels, Jigs and Country Dances for the Violin, Boston, Jean White, 1880. White’s rare volume and others are described at The Henry Reed Collection.
WHILE STROLLING THROUGH THE PARK ONE DAY(*), composed by Ed. Haley, published as The Fountain in the Park by Willis Woodward & Co., New York, 1884. Little seems to be known about the composer.
WHILE THE CONVENT BELLS WERE RINGING, composed by Max S. Witt, published by Joseph W. Stern & Co., New York, 1901.
WHIPPLE’S MILL, a melody that may have originated among the folk in the Catskill Mountains; see The Abelard Folk Song Book.
THE WHISTLER AND HIS DOG, composed by Arthur Pryor, published by Carl Fischer, New York, 1905. Pryor was the solo trombonist in John Philip Sousa’s famous band. During his twelve years with that band, he soloed thousands of times. Visit Rick Benjamin’s Arthur Pryor: Ragtime Pioneer.
WHISTLING RUFUS, composed by Frederick A. Mills, published by Kerry Mills, New York, 1899. The cover describes the music as "A Characteristic March, Which Can Be Used Effectively as a Two-Step, Polka or Cake-Walk." The piece is famous for its use as a cake walk; visit Competition Dances and scroll down to Cake Walk.
WHO’S THAT TAPPING AT THE WINDOW, in Ruth Crawford Seeger’s American Folk Songs for Children, 1948.
WILSON’S CLOG, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940. For information about the clog dance, visit The National Clogging Association.
WINNER’S FIVE-STEP WALTZ, found in Winner’s Dance Folio for the Violin, published by W. F. Shaw, 1882. No name is given for the composer, but perhaps it was Septimus Winner. See Dodworth’s Five-Step Waltz.
YANKEE DOODLE DANDY, composed by George Michael Cohan (1878-1942), performed as Yankee Doodle Boy at the opening of the Broadway musical Little Johnny Jones, November 7, 1904. The music is used in the 1942 biographical film Yankee Doodle Dandy, starring James Cagney as George M. Cohan. For more on Cohan, visit Wikipedia.
A YANKEE DUDE’LL DO, composed by Thomas P. Westendorf (1848-1923), published by W. F. Shaw, 1883. Here are Westendorf’s words for the chorus in this song:
You talk about your English dude,
Your French and German, too,
But oh, to strike an attitude,
A Yankee Dude’ll do –
Oh, for stylish attitude
A Yankee Dude’ll do.
THE YANKEE HUSTLER(*), composed by Eugene E. Schmitz (1864-1928), published by Sam Davis, San Francisco, 1902. Known as "Handsome Gene," Schmitz rose from presidency of the San Francisco musician’s union to the office of Mayor in 1901. For details and a picture, visit The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco.
YANKEE TROT, in Ira W. Ford’s Traditional Music of America, 1940.
YIDDISHA NIGHTINGALE, composed by Irving Berlin, published by Ted Snyder Co., New York, 1911. See Cuddle Up.
YOUNG AMERICA HORNPIPE, an Irish-American tune in Elizabeth Burchenal’s American Country-Dances, 1918.
ZA LA PE ZA LA PO to ZWINKLE, composed during 2004-2007 by Clark Kimberling for Collection 5. Following is a list of the Z-solos:
Za Di Za Didi Za Za, Za La Pe Pa La Po, Zaccarie, Zahna, Zalanda, Zalmetto, Zammamarch, Zamola, Zandover March, Zantacecilia, Zantaclarssa, Zanacleopatra, Zantagertrudis, Zantapollyanna, Zantazipporah, Zapaka, Zapeachie, Zapetta Zapetta Zapettapettapeia, Zappuchino, Zavalse, Zazziana, Zealand March, Zebrillo, Zellidy, Zemini, Zenith March, Zephelia, Zepoka, Zeppissisty, Zerendippiddy, Zerrymerry, Zestapittic, Zester Field, Zestivity, Zhimoley, Zibbi Zibbi Zo, Zibonko, Zicromatic, Zidaho, Ziddi Do Di Di Du-Ah, Zilladelphic, Zimbel, Ziminee, Zimmulee, Zimosa, Zinah, Zinatra, Zindrella, Zindy Doo, Zingdilly, Zinnipix, Zippa Jee, Zippicasso, Zippoli, Zipporie, Zitherie, Zixitizix, Zizzletta, Zoella, Zola Waltz, Zompadeelee Zoom Pah, Zoodle, Zopezio, Zuanna, Zubizzio, Zuda, Zuliannetta, Zoom Doodle Dee, Zumoresque, Zwinkle
Paul E. Bierley, The Works of John Philip Sousa, Integrity Press, Columbus, Ohio, 1984.
Ira W. Ford, Traditional Music of America, E. P. Dutton, 1940.
James J. Fuld, The Book of World-Famous Music: Classical, Popular and Folk, Third Edition, Dover Publications, New York, 1985.
Elias Howe, Howe’s 1000 Jigs and Reels [and other dance tunes], 1860’s. Republished with additional material by Patrick Sky, Mel Bay Publications, 2001.
Alan Lomax, The Folk Songs of North America, Doubleday & Company, Garden City, New York, 1960.
John A Lomax and Alan Lomax, American Ballads and Folk Songs, Macmillan, New York, 1934.
William Bradbury Ryan, Ryan’s Mammoth Collection: 1050 Reels and Jigs [and other dance tunes], 1883. Republished with additional material by Patrick Sky, Mel Bay Publications, 1995.
Henry Reed Collection (Library of Congress)
Histories of Many Melodies
The Fiddler's Companion
American Recorder Society
The Society of Recorder Players (British)
National Flute Association (American)
British Flute Society
Recorder Home Page
FiddleFork, an online fiddle community
Clicking will take you to Historical Notes, and from there you can download solos as PDFs (except for Collection 2, for which all the solos are published commercially).
Historical Notes for Collection 2: Christmas Carols; click here for access to the carols.
From Collection 5
April Showers (Louis Silvers), soprano recorder
Essence of American Patriots (A. S. Bowman), tenor recorder
Grandfather's Clock (Henry C. Work), soprano recorder
Hail to the Spirit of Liberty (John Philip Sousa), soprano recorder
In Florida (Louis F. Gottschalk), tenor recorder
Jefferson and Liberty soprano recorder
Zaccarie tenor recorder
Zavalse soprano recorder
Zazziana soprano recorder
Zealand March soprano recorder
Zola Waltz alto recorder
Zwinkle soprano recorder